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norms and standards

High uncertainties mean a high financial risk. To reduce the uncertainties and the financial risk as much as possible international standards have been set up to guarantee for a high quality and low uncertainties in wind measurement. Below we'll take a closer look at the range of norms and standards.

IEC 61400-12

The european standard for wind turbines describes in part 12 how to measure the power curve of a wind turbine (IEC 61400-12-1:2005). It contains procedures, methods and details to set up a measurement campaign for power curve measurement.

Annex G describes the layout and suitable designs of a met mast

Energy yield studies correlate the measured wind speed with the power curve of the wind turbine planned to be installed on the site – that’s why it is important to measure the wind according to the same standards which are valid for the measurement of the power curve of that turbine as described in IEC 61400-12-1 Annex G!

TR 6

The so called „technische Richtlinie 6“ of the FGW (Fördergemeinschaft Windenergie) describes how the wind potential and the potential energy yield at a certain site has to be estimated in regard of the selected turbine. Banks and investors in Germany will accept an energy yield study which has been conducted in accordance with the TR6 when financing the wind farm project.

TR6 guarantees a bankable energy yield study!

The new TR6 Rev. 9 stipulates what wind energy consultants already recommended during the last years:

  • A measurement is imperative when no data source (turbine or met mast) is available in the range of 10 km in flat terrain or in the radius of 2 km in complex terrain
  • Remote sensing (Lidar or Sodar) or Ultrasonic is possible, however, taking higher uncertainties into account.

In the northern German lowlands usually several turbines are available within 10 km, but not in the highlands and in Southern Germany. And certainly not at 2km radius! The result: when planning a wind farm in Germany in the highlands a high quality wind measurement is necessary in most cases.

Further reading:

http://www.wind-fgw.de/

http://www.wind-fgw.de/pdf/TR6_Rev9_preview_d.pdf

MEASNET

MEASNET is a cooperation of several international companies in the field of wind measurement, which have developed standards for different measurement procedures. Particularly relevant for the wind measurement is the standard for the calibration of anemometers ("Cup Anemometer Calibration Procedure"), according to which all anemometer used for wind measurements for yield reports, wind resource studies and power curve measurements, need to be calibrated.

Further reading:

http://www.measnet.com/documents/

 

Further relevant norms and standards:

  • Construction: DIN EIN 1993, DIN 4131 
  • Windloads: DIN 4131
  • Ice loads up to 600m a.s.l.: DIN1055-5
  • Obstacle lights and markings: ICAO Annex 14